The first section is dedicated to the city’s historical course through the ages. The area of Eretria has been continuously inhabited since the beginning of the 3rd millennium B.C. Although the remains of the Mycenaean era remain scarce, Eretria first flourished during the subsequent Geometric period (8th century B.C.). It played an active part in the creation of commercial relations with the East and participated widely in the first phase of the Greek colonization in Northen Greece (Mende, Methone, Dikaia), South Italy and Sicily (Pithekoussai, Cumae, Zankle).
The objects exhibited in this section shed light on the first settlement, the prosperity of the city in the Geometric period, the commerce and colonies, as well as the development of the alphabetical writing system.