Since its first publication the Mechanism has been recognized as an astronomical device. The first Greek experts to study it (1902-1934) were archaeologists, J. Svoronos and V. Stais, the historian, K. Rados, the officers of the Greek Royal Navy, P. Rediades and J. Theophanides and the German philologist A. Rehm. Both Svoronos and Stais guessed that it was an astrolabe. Rehm studied the mechanical elements and the inscriptions on the plates and called it a "planetarium". Theophanides was the first to construct a mechanical model and to give publicity on the find, which was a navigational instrument in his view.
During the period 1953-1974, the physicist and historian of science Derek J. de Solla Price examined the internal structure of the fragments, thanks to radiographs made by the physicist Ch. Karakalos, and built a second model. He concluded that the object was a calendrical mechanical computer. His ideas presented in two seminal publications (1959, 1974) were fundamental for subsequent research.
From 1990 onwards the fragments were investigated by means of X-ray linear tomography, photography, plain radiography and direct inspection of the fragments (A.G. Βromley and Μ.Τ. Wright) and recently with advanced surface imaging and high resolution 3-Dimensional X-ray tomography (Antikythera Mechanism Research Project). As a result of this research, additional inscriptions have been read and new models of the Mechanism have been constructed.
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Contributions, R. Proskynitopoulou, Ε. Magou, Μ. Zapheiropoulou, in: Ν. Kaltsas - Ε. Vlachogianni - P. Bouyia (eds), The Antikythera Shipwreck. The Ship - The Treasures - The Mechanism, Exhibition Catalogue, National Archaeological Museum, April 2012-April 2013, Athens 2012.