Ancient Kingdom


With Memphis as their capital city the powerful and wealthy Pharaohs of the Ancient Kingdom (circa 2575-2134 BC, 4th-8th Dynasties) established, since the 5th Dynasty, the worship of the Sun God and from then on they were called “sons of Helios”. The Ancient Kingdom was a flourishing period in architecture and sculpture. Sun temples were built with the gigantic obelisks serving as points of reference, in which the cult of Ra (Sun God) was practiced, and also pyramids that functioned as royal tombs and mastaba tombs (rectangular overground structures with one or more subterranean chambers dug into the ground that communicated with each other) which were intended for members of the royal family and the nobles. The mastaba tombs were decorated with reliefs and statues that depicted frontally serene and grandiose figures of young people with perfect proportions. In the Ancient Kingdom the hieroglyphic script developed considerably. The “Pyramid Texts” constituted a landmark in the evolution of the language of the time and reflected people’s perception of the afterlife.

Exhibition's objects

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